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Name: HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Website: http://www.okerekebest.hpage.com
Categories: Education
Globalization
Human Rights

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Human trafficking is the commerce and trade in the movement or migration[citation needed] of people, legal and illegal, including both legitimate labor activities as well as forced labor. The term is used in a more narrow sense by advocacy groups to mean the recruitment, transportation, harbouring, or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery, prostitution, forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage), and servitude. The UNODC, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, defines human trafficking according to Annex II, General Provisions, Article 3, Paragraph (a)[1] of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines trafficking in persons as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation." The UNODC offers practical help to states, not only helping to draft laws and create comprehensive national anti-trafficking strategies but also assisting with resources to implement them. In March 2009, UNODC launched the Blue Heart Campaign [5] to fight human trafficking, to raise awareness, and to encourage involvement and inspire action. Human trafficking is the fastest-growing criminal industry in the world,[2] with the total annual revenue for trafficking in persons estimated to be between $5 billion and $9 billion.[3] The Council of Europe states, "People trafficking has reached epidemic proportions over the past decade, with a global annual market of about $42.5 billion."[4][5] Trafficking victims typically are recruited using coercion, deception, fraud, the abuse of power, or outright abduction.[citation needed] Exploitation includes forcing people into prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery, or practices similar to slavery and servitude. For children, exploitation may also include forced prostitution, illicit international adoption, trafficking for early marriage, or recruitment as child soldiers, beggars, for sports (such as child camel jockeys or football players), or within certain religious groups.[6] Human trafficking is by its very nature an international crime that requires a high level of co-operation and collaboration between states if it is to be tackled effectively. The OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe), an ad hoc intergovernmental organization under the United Nations Charter, is one of the leading agencies fighting the problem of human trafficking, with an area of operation that includes North America, Europe, Russia, and Central Asia.Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 Extent 2.1 North America 2.2 Asia 2.3 Africa 2.4 Europe 3 Causes of trafficking 4 Relation to other vulnerability issues 4.1 Human trafficking and sexual exploitation 5 Efforts to reduce human trafficking 5.1 Intergovernmental organisations 5.1.1 OSCE 5.2 Government actions 5.3 International law 5.4 Council of Europe 5.5 United Kingdom 5.6 Australia 5.7 United States law 5.8 Non-governmental organizations 6 Criticisms 6.1 Lack of accurate data and possible overestimation or underestimation 6.2 Focus on "sex trafficking" 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 Notes 10 External links 10.1 Articles and resources 10.2 Government and international governmental organizations [edit] Overview This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2009) Human trafficking differs from people smuggling. In the latter, people voluntarily request the smuggler's service for fees, and there may be no deception involved in the (illegal) agreement. On arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually freed. On the other hand, the trafficking victim is enslaved, or the terms of their debt bondage are highly exploitative. The trafficker takes away the basic human rights of the victim.[7][8] Victims are sometimes tricked and lured by false promises or are physically forced.[9] Some traffickers use coercive and manipulative tactics including deception, intimidation, feigned love, isolation, threat and use of physical force, and debt bondage.[10] People who are seeking entry to other countries may be picked up by traffickers and misled into thinking that they will be free after being smuggled across the border. In some cases, they are captured through slave raiding, although this is increasingly rare. Trafficking is a fairly lucrative industry. In some areas, like Russia,[11] Eastern Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, and Colombia, trafficking is controlled by large criminal organizations.[12] However, the majority of trafficking is done by networks of smaller groups that each specialize in a certain area, like recruitment, transportation, advertising, or retail. This is very profitable because little start-up capital is needed, and prosecution is relatively rare.[13] Trafficked people are usually the most vulnerable and powerless minorities in a region. They often come from the poorer areas where opportunities are limited, they often are ethnic minorities, and they often are displaced persons such as runaways or refugees, though they may come from any social background, class or race. Women are particularly at risk from sex trafficking. Criminals exploit lack of opportunities, promise good jobs or opportunities for study, and then force the victims to become prostitutes. Through agents and brokers who arrange the travel and job placements, women are escorted to their destinations and delivered to the employers. Upon reaching their destinations, some women learn that they have been deceived about the nature of the work they will do; most have been lied to about the financial arrangements and conditions of their employment and find themselves in coercive or abusive situations from which escape is both difficult and dangerous. Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents' extreme poverty. Parents may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income, or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their children. In West Africa, trafficked children have often lost one or both parents to the African AIDS crisis.[14] Thousands of male (and sometimes female) children have been forced to be child soldiers. The adoption process, legal and illegal, results in cases of trafficking of babies and pregnant women between the West and the developing world. In David M. Smolin’s papers on child trafficking and adoption scandals between India and the United States,[15][16] he cites there are systemic vulnerabilities in the inter-country adoption system that makes adoption scandals predictable. Thousands of children from Asia, Africa, and South America are sold into the global sex trade every year. Often they are kidnapped or orphaned, and sometimes they are actually sold by their own families.[17] Men are also at risk of being trafficked for unskilled work predominantly involving forced labor which globally generates $31bn according to the International Labor Organization.[18] Other forms of trafficking include forced marriage and domestic servitude. The most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the US, according to a report by the UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). [19] The major sources of trafficked persons include Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. [19] [edit] Extent Due to the illegal nature of trafficking and differences in methodology, the exact extent is unknown. According to United States State Department data, an "estimated 600,000 to 820,000 men, women, and children [are] trafficked across international borders each year, approximately 70 percent are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. The data also illustrates that the majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation."[20] However, they go on to say that "the alarming enslavement of people for purposes of labor exploitation, often in their own countries, is a form of human trafficking that can be hard to track from afar." Thus the figures for persons trafficked for labor exploitation are likely to be greatly underestimated. Reporters have witnessed a rapid increase in prostitution in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Kosovo after UN and, in the case of the latter two, NATO peacekeeping forces moved in. Peacekeeping forces have been linked to trafficking and forced prostitution. Proponents of peacekeeping argue that the actions of a few should not incriminate the many participants in the mission, yet NATO and the UN have come under criticism for not taking the issue of forced prostitution linked to peacekeeping missions seriously enough. [21][22][23][24] A common misconception is that trafficking only occurs in poor countries. But every country in the world is involved in the underground, lucrative system. A “source country” is a country that girls are trafficked from. Usually, these countries are destitute and may have been further weakened by war, corruption, natural disasters or climate. Some source countries are Nepal, Guatemala, the former Soviet territories, and Nigeria, but there are many more. A “transit country”, like Mexico or Israel, is a temporary stop on trafficked victims’ journey to the country where they will be enslaved. A “destination country” is where trafficked persons end up. These countries are generally affluent, since they must have citizens with enough disposable income to "buy" the traffickers' "products". Japan, India, much of Western Europe, and the United States are all destination countries. [25] In a 2006 report the Future Group, a Canadian humanitarian organization dedicated to combatting human trafficking and the child sex trade, ranked eight industrialized nations. In the report, titled "Falling Short of the Mark: An International Study on the Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims", Canada received an F rating, the United Kingdom received a D, while the United States received a B+ and Australia, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Italy all received grades of B or B-. [26] [edit] North America According to the National Human Rights Center in Berkeley, California, there are currently about 10,000 forced laborers in the U.S., around one-third of whom are domestic servants and some portion of whom are children. The Associated Press reports, based on interviews in California and in Egypt, that trafficking of children for domestic labor in the U.S. is an extension of an illegal but common practice in Africa. Families in remote villages send their daughters to work in cities for extra money and the opportunity to escape a dead-end life. Some girls work for free on the understanding that they will at least be better fed in the home of their employer. This custom has led to the spread of trafficking, as well-to-do Africans accustomed to employing children immigrate to the U.S.[27] Research conducted by University of California at Berkeley on behalf of the anti-trafficking organisation Free the Slaves found that about 46% of people in slavery in the United States are forced into prostitution. Domestic servitude claims 27%, agriculture 10%, and other occupations 17%.[28][29] An estimated 14,000 people are trafficked into the United States each year, although again because trafficking is illegal, accurate statistics are difficult.[30] According to the Massachusetts based Trafficking Victims Outreach and Services Network (project of the nonprofit MataHari: Eye of the Day) in Massachusetts alone, there were 55 documented cases of human trafficking in 2005 and the first half of 2006 in Massachusetts.[31][not in citation given] In 2004, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) estimated that 600-800 persons are trafficked into Canada annually and that additional 1,500-2,200 persons are trafficked through Canada into the United States.[32] In Canada, foreign trafficking for prostitution is estimated to be worth $400 million annually.[33] According to the Future Group report, Canada in particular has a major problem with modern-day sexual slavery, giving Canada an F for its "abysmal" record treating victims. The report concluded that Canada "is an international embarrassment" when it comes to combating this form of slavery.[26] The report's principal author Benjamin Perrin wrote, "Canada has ignored calls for reform and continues to re-traumatize trafficking victims, with few exceptions, by subjecting them to routine deportation and fails to provide even basic support services." The report criticizes former Liberal Party of Canada cabinet ministers Irwin Cotler, Joe Volpe and Pierre Pettigrew for "passing the buck" on the issue. Commenting on the report, the then Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Monte Solberg told Sun Media Corporation, "It's very damning, and if there are obvious legislative or regulatory fixes that need to be done, those have to become priorities, given especially that we're talking about very vulnerable people."[34] The 2009 US Trafficking in Persons Report released by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, lists Canada as a Tier One country. "The Government of Canada fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. During the past year, the Canadian government maintained strong victim protection and prevention efforts, and demonstrated modest progress in prosecuting and punishing trafficking offenders, securing five trafficking-specific convictions during the past year. Law enforcement personnel, however, reported difficulties with securing adequate punishments against offenders."[35] [edit] Asia In Asia, Japan is the major destination country for trafficked women, especially from the Philippines and Thailand. The US State Department has rated Japan as either a ‘Tier 2’ or a ‘Tier 2 Watchlist’ country every year since 2001 in its annual Trafficking in Persons reports. Both these ratings implied that Japan was (to a greater or lesser extent) not fully compliant with minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking trade. There are currently an estimated 300,000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout Southeast Asia.[36] It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price.[37][38] By the late 1990s, UNICEF estimated that there are 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines, describing Angeles City brothels as "notorious" for offering sex with children. UNICEF estimates many of the 200 brothels in the notorious Angeles City offer children for sex. [39] Many of the Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War are turning to prostitution, while others are trafficked abroad, to countries like Syria, Jordan, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Turkey[citation needed]. In Syria alone an estimated 50,000 Iraqi refugee girls and women, many of them widows, had been forced into prostitution as of 2007.[40] Cheap Iraqi prostitutes have helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists. The clients come from wealthier countries in the Middle East.[41] High prices are offered for virgins.[42] As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, many under 14, have been sold into the sex slavery in India. Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favored in India because of their light skin.[43][44][45] [edit] Africa In parts of Ghana, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family.[46] In this instance, the woman does not gain the title of "wife." In parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shrine slavery persists, despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. In this system of slavery of ritual servitude, sometimes called trokosi (in Ghana) or voodoosi in Togo and Benin, young virgin girls are given as slaves in traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labor for the shrine.[47] [edit] Europe Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the impoverished former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children.[48][49] Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery.[50] It is estimated that 2/3 of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe, three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before.[51][52] The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, UK, Greece), the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, the United Arab Emirates), Asia, Russia and the United States.[53][54] An estimated 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the EU alone.[55] In the United Kingdom, the Home Office has stated that 71 women were trafficked into prostitution in 1998. They also suggest that the actual figure could be up to 1,420 women trafficked into the UK during the same period.[56] However, the figures are problematic as the definition used in the UK to identify cases of sex trafficking - derived from the Sexual Offences Act 2003 - does not require that victims have been coerced or misled. Thus, any individual who moves to the UK for the purposes of sex work can be regarded as having been trafficked - even if they did so with their knowledge and consent. The Home Office do not appear to be keeping records of the number of people trafficked into the UK for purposes other than sexual exploitation. In poverty-stricken Moldova, where the unemployment rate for women ranges as high as 68% and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad, experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200,000 and 400,000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad—perhaps up to 10% of the female population.[57][58] In Ukraine, a survey conducted by the NGO La Strada Ukraine in 2001–2003, based on a sample of 106 women being trafficked out of Ukraine found that 3% were under 18, and the U.S. State Department reported in 2004 that incidents of minors being trafficked was increasing. It is estimated that half a million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80% of all unemployed in Ukraine are women).[59][60] Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for various forms of exploitation.[61] Many women have been trafficked overseas for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Annually, thousands of trafficked Russian women end up as prostitutes in Western Europe, America, Canada, Israel and Asian countries.[62][63] The ILO estimates that there may be up to one million illegal immigrants in Russia who are victims of forced labor, which is a form of trafficking. There have also been reports of child sex tourism in Russia; however, law enforcement authorities report a decrease in the number of cases of child sex tourism and attribute this to aggressive police investigations and Russian cooperation with foreign law enforcement.[61] [edit] Causes of trafficking Trafficking in people has been facilitated by porous borders and advanced communication technologies, it has become increasingly transnational in scope and highly lucrative. Unlike drugs or arms, people can be "sold" many times. The opening up of Asian markets, porous borders, the end of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the former Yugoslavia have contributed to this globalization. Some causes and facilitators of trafficking include: Lack of employment opportunities Organized crime Regional imbalances Economic disparities Social discrimination Corruption in government Political instability Armed conflict Mass resettlement for large projects without proper Resettlement and Rehabilitation packages. Profitability Insufficient penalties against traffickers Minimal law enforcement on global sex tourism industry Legal processes that prosecute victims for prosecution instead of the traffickers[64] Poor international border defence [edit] Relation to other vulnerability issues Human trafficking is not a stand alone issue. It is closely related other issues that threaten security well being of the victims. Victims are exposed to continuous threats of physical violence by traffickers to ensure compliance. Many are held in bondage and beaten to suppress resistance. Other threats include absolute poverty due to wage deprivation. They are unprotected by labor laws, and long working hours as well as lack of holiday is common. For example, 15 is the standard working hours per day among Chinese victims in France. In Japan, Thai trafficking victims also complained of breach of work contracts, non-payment of wages, mandatory night work and poor accommodation [65]. [edit] Human trafficking and sexual exploitation Human Trafficking is awrong doing. There is no universally accepted definition of trafficking for sexual exploitation. The term encompasses the organized movement of people, usually women, between countries and within countries for sex work with the use of physical coercion, deception and bondage through forced debt. However, the issue becomes contentious when the element of coercion is removed from the definition to incorporate facilitating the willing involvement in prostitution. For example, In the United Kingdom, The Sexual Offenses Act, 2003 incorporated trafficking for sexual exploitation but did not require those committing the offense to use coercion, deception or force, so that it also includes any person who enters the UK to carry out sex work with consent as having been trafficked.[65] Save the Children stated "The issue gets mired in controversy and confusion when prostitution itself is considered as a violation of the basic human rights of both adult women and minors, and equal to sexual exploitation per se..... trafficking and prostitution become conflated with each other.... On account of the historical conflation of trafficking and prostitution both legally and in popular understanding, an overwhelming degree of effort and interventions of anti-trafficking groups are concentrated on trafficking into prostitution" [66] Sexual trafficking includes coercing a migrant into a sexual act as a condition of allowing or arranging the migration. Sexual trafficking uses physical coercion, deception and bondage incurred through forced debt. Trafficked women and children, for instance, are often promised work in the domestic or service industry, but instead are usually taken to brothels where their passports and other identification papers are confiscated. They may be beaten or locked up and promised their freedom only after earning – through prostitution – their purchase price, as well as their travel and visa costs [67][68] The main motive of a woman (in some cases an underage girl) to accept an offer from a trafficker is better financial opportunities for herself or her family. In many cases traffickers initially offer ‘legitimate’ work or the promise of an opportunity to study. The main types of work offered are in the catering and hotel industry, in bars and clubs, modeling contracts, or au pair work. Traffickers sometimes use offers of marriage, threats, intimidation and kidnapping as means of obtaining victims. In the majority of cases, the women end up in prostitution. Also some (migrating) prostitutes become victims of human trafficking. Some women know they will be working as prostitutes, but they have an inaccurate view of the circumstances and the conditions of the work in their country of destination.[69][70] In Japan the prosperous entertainment market had created huge demand for commercial sexual workers, and such demand is being met by trafficking women and children from the Philippines, Colombia and Thailand. Women are forced into street prostitution, based stripping and live sex acts.[71] However, detainees or deportees from Japan said that about 80 percent of the women went there with the intention of working as prostitutes [72] The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, in the US and Canada, has also been implicated in the trafficking of underage women across state lines and international borders (US/Canada). In most cases, this is for the continuation of polygamous practices, in the form of plural marriage.[73][74] Trafficking victims are also exposed to different psychological problems. They suffer social alienation in the host and home countries. Stigmatization, social exclusion and intolerance make reintegration into local communities difficult. The governments offer little assistance and social services to trafficked victims upon their return. As the victims are also pushed into drug trafficking, many of them face criminal sanctions. [edit] Efforts to reduce human trafficking Governments, international associations, and nongovernmental organizations have all tried to end human trafficking with various degrees of success. [edit] Intergovernmental organisations [edit] OSCE In 2003 the OSCE established an anti-trafficking mechanism aimed at raising public awareness of the problem and building the political will within participating States to tackle it effectively. The OSCE actions against human trafficking are coordinated by the Office of the Special Representative for Combating the Traffic of Human Beings Since 2006 this office has been headed by Eva Biaudet, a former Member of Parliament and Minister of Health and Social Services in her native Finland. The activities of the Office of the Special Representative range from training law enforcement agencies to tackle human trafficking to promoting policies aimed at rooting out corruption and organised crime. The Special Representative also visits countries and can, on their request, support the formation and implementation of their anti-trafficking policies. In other cases the Special Representative provides advice regarding implementation of the decisions on human trafficking, and assists governments, ministers and officials to achieved their stated goals of tackling human trafficking. [edit] Government actions A human trafficking awareness poster from the Canadian Department of Justice. Actions taken to combat human trafficking vary from government to government. Some have introduced legislation specifically aimed at making human trafficking illegal. Governments can also develop systems of co-operation between different nation’s law enforcement agencies and with non-government organizations (NGOs). Many countries though have come under criticism for inaction, or ineffective action. Criticisms include failure of governments in not properly identifying and protecting trafficking victims, that immigration policies might re-victimize trafficking victims, or insufficient action in helping prevent vulnerable people becoming trafficking victims. A particular criticism has been the reluctance of some countries to tackle trafficking for purposes other than sex. Other actions governments could take is raise awareness. This can take on three forms. Firstly in raising awareness amongst potential victims, in particular in countries where human traffickers are active. Secondly, raising awareness amongst police, social welfare workers and immigration officers. And in countries where prostitution is legal or semi-legal, raising awareness amongst the clients of prostitution, to look out for signs of a human trafficking victim. Raising awareness can take on different forms. One method is through the use of awareness films [75] or through posters [76]. [edit] International law In 2000 the United Nations adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, also called the Palermo Convention, and two Palermo protocols there to: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; and Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air. All of these instruments contain elements of the current international law on trafficking in human beings. [edit] Council of Europe The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings [77] was adopted by the Council of Europe on 16 May 2005. The aim of the convention is to prevent and combat the trafficking in human beings. The Convention entered into force on 1 February 2008. Of the 47 member states of the Council of Europe, so far 21 have signed the convention and 17 have ratified it.[78] [edit] United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, after intense pressure from Human Rights organisations, trafficking for labour exploitation was made illegal in 2004 (trafficking for sexual exploitation being criminalised many years previously). However, the 2004 law has been used very rarely and by mid-2007 there had not been a single conviction under these provisions. [65] [edit] Australia Human trafficking in Australia [edit] United States law Laws against trafficking in the United States exist at the federal and state levels. Over half of the states now criminalize human trafficking though the penalties are not as tough as the federal laws. Related federal and state efforts focus on regulating the tourism industry to prevent the facilitation of sex tourism and regulate international marriage brokers to ensure criminal background checks and information on how to get help are given to the potential bride. The United States federal government has taken a firm stance against human trafficking both within its borders and beyond. Domestically, human trafficking is a federal crime under Title 18 of the United States Code. Section 1584 makes it a crime to force a person to work against his will, whether the compulsion is effected by use of force, threat of force, threat of legal coercion or by "a climate of fear" (an environment wherein individuals believe they may be harmed by leaving or refusing to work); Section 1581 similarly makes it illegal to force a person to work through "debt servitude." Human trafficking as it relates to involuntary servitude and slavery is prohibited by the 13th Amendment. Federal laws on human trafficking are enforced by Immigration and Customs Enforcement as well as the United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section. The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 allowed for greater statutory maximum sentences for traffickers, provided resources for protection of and assistance for victims of trafficking and created avenues for interagency cooperation. It also allows many trafficking victims to remain in the United States and apply for permanent residency under a T-1 Visa.[79]. The act also attempted to encourage efforts to prevent human trafficking internationally, by creating annual country reports on trafficking and tying financial non-humanitarian assistance to foreign countries to real efforts in addressing human trafficking. The United States Department of State has a high-level official charged with combating human trafficking, the Director of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons ("anti-trafficking czar"). The current director is Lou de Baca.[80] International NGOs such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have called on the United States to improve its measures aimed at reducing trafficking.They recommend that the United States more fully implement the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children and for immigration officers to improve their awareness of trafficking and support the victims of trafficking. [81][82] Several state governments have taken action to address human trafficking in their borders, either through legislation or prevention activities. For example, Florida state law prohibits forced labor, sex trafficking, and domestic servitude, and provides for mandatory law enforcement trainings and victim services. A 2006 Connecticut law prohibits coerced work and makes trafficking a violation of the Connecticut RICO Act. [edit] Non-governmental organizations Human rights organisations, including Amnesty International, Anti-Slavery International and Human Rights Watch have campaigned against human trafficking. Several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and human rights organizations have been formed to combat human trafficking. Some of these include: Arizona League to End Regional Trafficking (ALERT) is a coalition representing partnerships with law enforcement, faith-based communities, non-profit organizations, social service agencies, attorneys and concerned citizens. ALERT helps victims of trafficking by providing: food and shelter; medical care; mental health counseling; immigration assistance; legal assistance; language interpretation; case management; and other culturally appropriate services throughout the state of Arizona. Through education, outreach and a variety of programs and services, ALERT strives to end the suffering and dehumanization of victims of human trafficking.[83]. Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST) is a Los Angeles-based anti-human trafficking organization. Founded in 1998, CAST helps rehabilitate survivors of trafficking, raises awareness, and affects legislation and public policy surrounding human trafficking, through social, advocacy and legal services. CAST defines human trafficking as “a modern-day form of slavery,” in which victims are subjected to force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Victims of trafficking can work in domestic service, factories, farms, restaurants, construction sites, hotel housekeeping, servile marriage, forced prostitution, child prostitution and child pornography[84]. Chab Dai, ("joining hands" in Khmer) was founded in Cambodia in 2005, and now has international offices in the US, UK, and Canada. Chab Dai aims to bring an end to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation through coalition building, advocacy, research and education. In Cambodia, Chab Dai facilitates a coalition of over 40 NGOs all working against trafficking in areas such as prevention, aftercare and legal intervention. Chab Dai assists coalition members collaborate and improve capacity through training, advice clinics, and discussion forums; and works to build bridges between members, UN agencies and government. Chab Dai USA, located in California, is committed to encouraging collaboration amongst existing agencies while assisting organizations improve capacity, particularly according to international best practice models. [85] The SOLD Project, founded in 2007 is a grassroots organization dedicated to inspiring and empowering individuals to stop child prostitution before it begins. The SOLD Project started as a film project to document the realities of child prostitution in Thailand with hopes to increase awareness and advocacy. However, SOLD became more than a film and is now a non-profit organization focused on the prevention of child prostitution through education and community reform. The SOLD Project Prevention Program is 4-fold 1)Scholarships 2) Mentorship 3) After School Programs 4) Human Trafficking Awareness Programs. [86] Alliance Anti Traffic (AAT), founded in 2007 is a French non-governmental organization created to fight against trafficking in Women and Children.The organization intervenes to protect women and girls from these forms of abuse. AAT also works on suppression and the demand side. AAT assist targeted women and children through a full process: first it prevents at-risk groups, AAT protect victims found in exploitation places and after repatriate them back into their communities. Then AAT reintegrate women and girls based on their choice and the needs of their communities. AAT finally empowers targeted girls to develop alternatives and to prevent as well as to protect vulnerable women and children. www.Allianceantitrafic.org Somaly Mam Foundation, founded in 2007 at the United Nations with the support of UNICEF, UNIFEM, and IOM, the Somaly Mam Foundation is known for empowering victims of human trafficking to become activists and agents of change. With the leadership of world renowned Cambodian activist, Somaly Mam, the organization has garnered support from influential leaders and celebrities such as Susan Sarandon, Daryl Hannah, Diane von Furstenberg, and Hillary Clinton. The foundation also runs activities to support Rescue and Rehabilitation of victims in Southeast Asia and works to increase global awareness to inspire action.[87] Redlight Children Campaign, founded in 2002 is a non-profit organization created by New York lawyer and president of Priority Films Guy Jacobson and Israeli actress Adi Ezroni in 2002, to combat worldwide child sexual exploitation and human trafficking. Its mission is to decrease the demand side of the international sex trade through legislation and enforcement while raising awareness utilizing mass media and grassroots outreach. Through its partnership with Priority Films, Redlight Children has recently launched the K11 Project—three films which attempt to expose real life experiences of the underage sex trade. K11 consists of two documentaries and a feature-length narrative, Holly (film), which were all filmed on location in Cambodia. RedLight also began working the Somaly Mam Foundation in 2003. A comprehensive blueprint outlines three phases of the attack on this crime against humanity: raising awareness, correcting, improving, and enforcing current legislation, followed by allocating the appropriate resources to mirror the size and scope of the epidemic. The hope is that utilizing both film and mass media will put the issue on the international agenda, inciting action from the general public and policy makers, thereby leading to an allocation of appropriate resources and stricter enforcement that will effectively reduce demand.[88] Not For Sale Campaign, founded in 2007, equips and mobilizes Smart Activists to deploy innovative solutions to re-abolish slavery in their own backyards and across the globe. Headquartered in Montara, CA, the Not For Sale Campaign has more than 40 regional chapters across the United States and Canada. Through the innovation and implementation of 'open-source activism', the campaign identifies trafficking rings inside the United States and collaborates with local law enforcement and community groups to shut them down and provide support for the victims. Internationally, the campaign partners with poorly resourced abolitionist groups internationally to enhance their capacity. [89] ; [90] Polaris Project, founded in 2002, is an international anti-human trafficking organization with offices in Washington DC, New Jersey, Colorado, and Japan. Polaris Project's comprehensive approach includes operating local and national human trafficking hotlines, conducting direct outreach and victim identification, providing social services and housing to victims, advocating for stronger state and national anti-trafficking legislation, and engaging community members in grassroots efforts.[91] Tiny Stars. Using the Protect Act of 2003, Tiny Stars works closely with Federal Law enforcement agencies to build cases against American child predators. Founded by Jake Collins in 2001, Tiny Stars focuses on identifying and tracking pedophiles who victimize children under the age of 14 years old. To advance its mission, the organization has developed a network of undercover agents, often former government operatives.[92] National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) is a program funded by the Department of Health and Human Services. The NHTRC operates the National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline 24-hours a day, 365 days a year.[93] Made By Survivors (MBS)[6] is a division of The Emancipation Network (TEN) and is an organization that uses economic empowerment to help survivors of trafficking and people at high risk to rebuild their lives. MBS's handicraft programs offer these survivors a job that enables them to support themselves and live a meaningful, independent life. For those still living at the shelter, handicrafts programs provide therapeutic benefits, job training, literacy, social interaction, and a stipend for part-time work. MBS partners with 18 anti-slavery organizations around the world, including Thailand, Cambodia, Nepal, India, Ukraine, Uganda, the Philippines, Tanzania, and the United States. MBS also runs volunteer trips to India as a way to educate people who can use the experience to get more involved and educate the public. The trips also help the survivors to trust people again and reintegrate them back into a normal life. In addition, MBS offers people the opportunity to host parties at their homes to sell the handicrafts and educate friends and family.[94] [edit] Criticisms [edit] Lack of accurate data and possible overestimation or underestimation Distinguishing human trafficking from voluntary migration is crucial because the ability of people to purposefully and voluntarily migrate for work should be respected;[citation needed] in fact is required to be respected by Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Most controversy is centered around human trafficking for the purpose of prostitution, especially since prostitution in and on itself is seen by many[who?] as a form of exploitation. Estimates of the number of people trafficked for sexual purposes is contentious – problems of definition can be compounded by the willingness of victims to identify as being trafficked.[95] The United Nations Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons reported that most prostitution that occurs today is connected to human trafficking: "For the most part, prostitution as actually practiced in the world usually does satisfy the elements of trafficking." [96] Even most domestic prostitution satisfies the elements of trafficking as defined in the Trafficking Protocol. The Trafficking Protocol defines illegal trafficking as "the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person" if an existing vulnerability – such as economic vulnerability or sexual vulnerability – is exploited. For this reason, threat, coercion, or use of force is not necessary to constitute trafficking. Much criticism of the recent publicity around sex trafficking, and the associated demands for legal sanction against prostitutes or their customers, has come from some sexual health – AIDS organisations. Their principal concern is that such measures hinder efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. The epidemiologist Elizabeth Pisani, in her book The Wisdom of Whores: Bureaucrats, Brothels, and the Business of AIDS, examines the phenomenon of sex trafficking and its impact on HIV prevention in detail. She concludes that forced trafficking (as opposed to voluntary involvement in sex work) is wildly over-estimated. [edit] Focus on "sex trafficking" Whilst most mainstream human rights groups acknowledge all forms of trafficking, there is growing criticism of the focus on trafficking for sexual exploitation at the expense of tackling other forms such as domestic or agricultural trafficking. Ambassador Nancy Elly Raphael, the first director of the U.S. Federal Trafficking in Persons Office, resigned over what she saw as misrepresentation of the issue in order to provide support for the anti-prostitution lobby. She says "It was so ideological. Prostitution, that's what was driving the whole program. They kept saying, 'If you didn't have prostitution, you wouldn't have trafficking.' I was happy to leave." [97] In many countries, particularly the United States and the United Kingdom, the overwhelming majority of interventions concentrate on sex trafficking. For example, on 8 July 2008, Fiona Mactaggart MP, a prominent UK government spokesperson on the issue, admitted that the UK government concentrated on disrupting sex trafficking. Quoting from Sigma Huda, UN special reporter on trafficking in persons, she said "For the most part, prostitution as actually practiced in the world usually does satisfy the elements of trafficking..." [98] Opponents[who?] of this criticism state that of the estimated 700,000 people trafficked worldwide annually, 80% are female, and 70% of those women and girls are trafficked “for sexual exploitation” and therefore the focus of human trafficking groups on sex trafficking is necessary and justified.[citation needed] [edit] In popular culture Lilya 4-ever, a film based loosely on the real life of Dangoule Rasalaite, portrays a young woman from the former Soviet Union who is deceived into being trafficked for exploitation in Sweden. Human trafficking has also been portrayed in the Canadian/UK TV drama Sex Traffic. Based on true events, Svetlana's Journey by Michael Cory Davis depicts the trials of a 13-year-old who loses her family and is sold to human traffickers by her adoptive family. Drugged, raped, and forced to endure continuous abuse by her 'clients' and traffickers, she attempts to commit suicide, but survives. River of Innocents follows the 17-year-old Majlinda into the world of modern-day slavery, where she struggles to hold on to her humanity and to help the stolen children around her survive.[99] Dimanasus Prophecy, a movie by Dzmitry Vasilyeu about human trafficking in Eastern Europe. David Mamet's 2004 film Spartan centres on the hunt for the daughter of a high ranking US official who has been kidnapped by an international sex slavery ring. Holly (2006) is a movie about a little girl, sold by her poor family and smuggled across the border to Cambodia to work as a prostitute in a red light village. The Virgin Harvest is a feature length documentary that was filmed at the same time.[100] The 2007 film Trade deals with human trafficking out of Mexico and a brother's attempt to rescue his kidnapped and trafficked young sister. It is based on Peter Landesman's article about sex slaves, which was featured as the cover story in the January 24, 2004 issue of New York Times Magazine. Human Trafficking (2005) (TV) by Christian Duguay stars Mira Sorvino, Donald Sutherland, and Robert Carlyle. A sixteen-year-old girl from the Ukraine, a single mother from Russia, an orphaned seventeen-year-old girl from Romania, and a twelve-year-old American tourist become the victims of international sex slave traffickers. Sorvino and Sutherland are the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents who struggle to save them. Ghosts, a documentary by independent film maker Nick Broomfield, follows the story of the victims of the 2004 Morecambe Bay cockling disaster, in which smuggled immigrants are forced in to hard labour. The Jammed, an Australian film about human trafficking in Australia.[101] The 2007 film The Sugar Babies by Amy Serrano is a documentary that highlights the plight of Haitian victims of human trafficking in the Dominican Republic. It was produced by Thor Halvorssen and funded by the Human Rights Foundation. The European series Matroesjka's deals with girls from ex-Soviet countries, who have been deceived into sex slavery in Belgium. The 2007 film Eastern Promises by David Cronenberg deals with a British midwife who unravels a gang of Russian slavers when she seeks relatives to a baby of a sex slave named Tatiana. The 2008 film Taken (film) by Pierre Morel, casting e.g. Liam Neeson, which is about foreign girls in Paris who are "trafficked" with the purpose of forcing them to prostitution.[102] The 2008 documentary and concert film Call + Response combines contemporary musician performances with an investigative report on worldwide human trafficking including hidden camera footage from Thailand brothels. A 2006 Punisher story arc called The Slavers, written by Garth Ennis, dealt with the horrors of human trafficking and sex slavery. In the CSI: NY episode, "She's Not There", the episode showcases the horrors of human trafficking when a Russian tourist is murdered and a girl that went missing. The 2009 novel, A False Dawn, by Tom Lowe (St. Martins Press, ISBN 031237917X) depicts the horrors of human trafficking in the U.S. The 2009 film Happy Endings?, filmed in Rhode Island, chronicles the lives of the women in massage parlors in Rhode Island during a battle in the state legislature to make prostitution illegal, focusing on issues of human trafficking.
Lets take a look at illegal migration;

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